Appendix E


Categorized By Usage †

† Usage is determined by examining all the scriptures that contain the words under consideration.   Because of that examination, an understanding and resultant definition can be derived from the manner in which the words are used.   (See Appendix B, Keys to Biblical Interpretation, I,C.)


(Hebrew zanah, zenunim, zenuth, tazenuth and Greek porneia, porne, porneion, porneuo, pornos) translated in the KJV as: harlot, fornication, fornicator, whoring, whore, whorish, whoredom, whoremonger.


Literal: The voluntary (mutually consenting) physical act of male/female sexual intercourse not prescribed by the law of GOD.

Gen 34:31
Gen 38:15
Gen 38:24
Lev 19:29a
Lev 21:7,9,14
Deut 22:21
Josh 2:1
Josh 6:17,22,25
Jud 11:1
Jud 16:1
Jud 19:2
I Kings 3:16
I Kings 22:38 §
Prov 6:26
Prov 7:10
Prov 29:3
Jer 5:7
Joel 3:3
Amos 7:17
Matt 5:32
Matt 15:19
Matt 19:9
Matt 21:31,32
Mark 7:21
I Cor 5:1.9-11
I Cor 6:9,13.15,16,18
I Cor 7:2
II 12:21
Gal 5:19
Eph 5:3,5
Col 3:5
I Thess 4:3
I Tim 1:10
Heb 11:31
Heb 13:4
Jas 2:25
Jude 7

§ I Kings 22:38

Omitted in the KJV.  "his armour" is Hebrew zonoth, which is derived from the root word Hebrew zanah.  According to the Septuagint, this reference is to prostitutes bathing in the pool of Samaria.
‡ Matt 5:32, 19:9 

The clauses "saving for the cause of fornication" and "except it be for fornication" are included by all the authorities (i.e., the Critical Greek Texts).  However, we believe, along with other authorities, that the exceptive clause is not harmonious with the context of these verses or the greater scope of scripture.


Metaphorical:  The commission of idolatry through the pursuit of other gods, illustrated as physical fornication (cp. IA).

Ex 34:15,16
Lev 17:7
Lev 19:29b
Lev 20:5,6
Num 14:33
Num 15:39
Deut 31:16
Jud 2:17
Jud 8:27,33
II Kings 9:22
I Chron 5:25
Ps 73:27
Isa 1:21
Isa 23:15-17
Isa 57:3
Jer 2:20
Jer 3:1,2,3,6,8,9
Her 13:27
Ezek 6:9
Ezek 16:15,16,16
Ezek 16:20,22,25
Ezek 16:26,28,29
Ezek 16:30,31,33
Ezek 16:34-36,41
Ezek 20:30
Ezek 23:3,7,8,11,14
Ezek 23:17-19,29,30
Ezek 23:43,44
Ezek 43:7,9

Hos 1:2
Hos 2:2,4,5
Hos 3:3
Hos 4:10-15,18
Hos 5:3,4
Hos 6:10
Hos 9:1
Nah 3:4
John 8:41
Rev 14:8
Rev 17:1,2,4
Rev 17:15,16
Rev 18:3,9
Rev 19:2

† John 8:41

The context of this verse describes a conversation regarding the subject of "fathers."   Jesus Christ, in vs 39, responds to the Pharisees’ claim that they were the children of Abraham.  In vs 40, He refutes this by showing that if they were the children of Abraham, they would do the works of Abraham (meaning that they would believe in Him rather than purposing to kill Him).  Jesus goes a step further in that denial by saying that they do the works of their own father (vs 41), which obviously had nothing to do with Abraham.  The stark contrast moved them to reply, "We be not born of fornication . . . "  They implied that they were not illegitimate children (i.e., having someone other than Abraham as their father).  They tried to oppose Jesus’ claim of their having another father by further exclaiming, " . . . we have one Father, even God."  On the contrary, Jesus showed that, spiritually, they were illegitimate children (vs 44).


The Literal-Metaphorical Combined:  The literal giving access to and providing a means for the metaphorical [the literal is the beginning of which the metaphorical is the result];  the physical act of sexual intercourse leading to and culminating in idolatry.

Num 25:1
II Chron 21:11,13
Ps 106:39
Prov 5:3
Prov 23:27
Micah 1:7
Acts 15:20,29
Acts 21:25
Rom 1:29 §
I Cor 10:8
Heb 12:16

Rev 2:14
Rev 2:20,21
Rev 9:21
Rev 21:8
Rev 22:15

† Prov 5:3

The "strange woman" is the Hebrew zur and has no relation to the Hebrew words relating to "fornication" (zanah, zenunim, zenuth, tazenuth).  However, the usage of "strange woman" would suggest an implied relationship to the subject of fornication.
§ Rom 1:29

The word "fornication" is omitted in all the Critical Greek Texts.


(Hebrew na'aph, na'aphuphim, ni'uphim, 'esheth ish, and Greek moichalis, moichao, moicheia, moicheuin, moichos, moikaomai) translated in the KJV as: adultery, adulteries, adulterer, adulteress, adulterous, break wedlock.


Literal:  The fracture of the marriage vow of sexual faithfulness (a vow to sexually love one's spouse only) because of male and female sexual intercourse not prescribed by the law of GOD.

Ex 20:14
Lev 20:10
Deut 5:18
Job 24:15
Ps 50:18
Prov 6:32
Prov 30:20
Jer 7:9
Jer 29:23
Ezek 23:37a,45a
Mal 3:5
Matt 5:27,28,32
Matt 15:19
Matt 19:9,18
Mark 7:21
Mark 10:11,12,19
Luke 16:18
Luke 18:20
John 8:3,4
Rom 2:22
Rom 7:3
Rom 13:9
I Cor 6:9
Gal 5:19 §
Heb 13:4
Jas 2:11
II Pet 2:14
† Matt 19:9b

" . . . and whoso marrieth her which is put away doth commit adultery."   This is omitted by Tischendorf, VIII ed. (1865-1872), and the Wescott & Hort Greek text and also the Revised Version (included in the margin of the Wescott & Hort Greek Text and the Revised Version).  Doubtful reading according to Tregelles (1857-1872).
‡ John 8:3,4

The section of John 7:53 through 8:11 is not found in the best and the oldest Greek manuscripts.  Before the 12th century, there is no Greek church father who refers to this passage, and Euthymius declared that the accurate copies of the Gospels did not contain this section.  However, many New Testament scholars, as well as ourselves, agree that this section is probably a correct oral tradition of an event that occurred in Jesus Christ's life.
§ Gal 5:19

". . . Adultery."  This is omitted in all the Critical Greek Texts.


Metaphorical:  The commission of idolatry by way of the fracture of a vow of faithfulness (obedience) to GOD [to keep the LORD as their GOD], illustrated as a wife breaking her marriage vow of sexual faithfulness to her husband.(cp. IIA)

Isa 57:3
Jer 3:8,9
Jer 5:7
Jer 9:2
Jer 13:27
Jer 23:10,14
Ezek 16:32,38
Ezek 23:37b,43,45b
Hos 2:2
Hos 4:13,14
Matt 12:39
Mark 8:38
Jas 4:4 ¤
Rev 2:22

¤ James 4:4

"Ye adulterers and . . . " This is omitted in all the Critical Greek Texts.

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